Define the following: Carbohydrate:


Dental Caries:

Dietary Fiber:


Empty-kcalorie foods:


Glycemic index:





Ketone Bodies:

Lactose Intolerance:

Mono saccharides:

Normal fasting blood glucose:


Protein-Sparing Action:


Sugars: 3. Joe L. is a 30-year-old African American male who recently began to increase his fiber intake at the recommendation of his physician. Before his doctor visit, a food history revealed the following consumption:

FOOD FIBER (g) Using Appendix H in text DA+ CODE NUMBER OF FOOD IN APPENDIX H Breakfast Orange sections, ½ cup 274 (p. H-16) Apple Jacks cereal, 1 cup 1199 (p. H-12) Poached egg, 1 101 (p. H-40) Wheat bread, toasted, 1 slice 8671 (p. H-4) Margarine, 1 Tbsp. 114 (p. H-52) Milk, whole, 3.3% 50 (p. H-36) Coffee, brewed, 8 fl. oz. 731 (p. H-50) Cream, light coffee, 1 Tbsp. 28 (p. H34) Lunch Baked flounder fish, 3 oz. 25089 (p. H-40) Rice, white, long grain, boiled, ½ cup 484 (p. H-10) Carrots, sliced, boiled, drained, ½ cup 602 (p. H-20) Roll, dinner, plain, small (crescent), 1 ea. 8555 (p. H-8) Margarine, 1 Tbsp. 114 (p. H52) Coca Cola Classic, 12 oz. 12010 (p. H50) Dinner Macaroni, enriched, cooked, 1 cup 440 (H-12) Cheddar cheese, 1 oz. 888 (H-32) Tomatoes, red, canned, stewed, ½ cup 1120 (p. H-26) Snickers bar, 1 ea. 1782 (p. H54) Coca Cola Classic, 12 oz. 12010 (p. H50) Snack Peanuts, dry roasted, salted, ½ cup 2806 (p. H-28) Beer, 12 fl. oz. 686 (p. H-48)

a. How much fiber was Joe L. consuming (complete and sum the middle chart column above)? NOTE: you MUST use the 13th edition of the textbook!

b. What is Joe L’s daily recommendation (AI) for total fiber?

c. Joe L. takes his doctor’s advice and, the next day, dramatically increases his fiber to 45 grams on an average day. He now begins to experience increased gas and flatulence from this change in his routine. What changes would you suggest to Joe at this time?

4. Levon J. is a 48-year-old landscape architect recently diagnosed with hypoglycemia from a glucose tolerance blood test. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds; he reports an unexpected weight gain of 12 pounds over the past 6 months. Levon reports he often skips breakfast or stops for a donut and coffee on his way to work in the morning. He often eats out with clients for lunch or grabs a fruit smoothie on his way to a job site. He eats dinner at home with his wife most evenings. He reports feeling hungry, weak, and “anxious” on many occasions during his work day, which he says is relived somewhat by eating a candy bar or other high-sugar snack food. His diet history reveals no food intolerances although he states he avoids products which contain high-fructose corn syrup and prefers to use products sweetened with sugar.

Because of his symptoms of weakness, anxiety, and hunger, you determine that Levon may be suffering from hypoglycemia.

a. In general, and based on the glycemic index of foods, what types of carbohydrate containing foods would you recommend Levon include in his diet to reduce his symptoms? Which foods would you recommend he avoid?

b. Based on Levon’s lifestyle patterns and using Choose Your Foods, Food Lists For Weight Management, devise a one-day meal plan for Levon (see text, page 108) that will help alleviate his symptoms of hypoglycemia and that includes adequate protein (about 60 grams) and at least 130 grams of carbohydrates. Include three meals and two snacks. Be sure to total the carbohydrate and protein. (Complete the following chart.)

NOTE: Include portion sizes!

Meal/Food Carbohydrate (g.) Protein (g.) Breakfast Lunch Mid-Afternoon Snack Dinner Evening Snack Totals

5. Discuss in detail the three different types of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides). In your discussion, explain how each type is chemically different from the others, and how these differences relate to its activity and function.

6. Victor and Michael are identical twins. They enjoy the same sports, games, and food. Victor, however, likes to chew sugar-free gum while Michael does not. During their last visit, their dentist found that Michael had two cavities while Victor did not. Michael asks you why Victor, who chews gum after eating, doesn’t have cavities and he does. How would you explain this to Michael?

7. Can sugar-sweetened soft drinks be part of a healthy diet? Support your answer.

8. Rhonda H. is in her early 40’s, and since graduating from college about 10 years ago, has gained more than 35 pounds. She works for an insurance company in downtown Baltimore, where her typical workday involves sitting while working at her computer. Rhonda recognizes that without some form of change in her diet or lifestyle, her weight problem will continue to worsen. She is looking for some easy solutions to her predicament. One of her colleagues mentioned that she had recently lost 20 pounds on a low carbohydrate diet. She has read that there are “good” carbs and “bad” carbs. After doing some research, she compiled a list of carbs that are thought to increase body fat. She also read something about the “glycemic index” and that it is related to whether you will gain weight. It all sounded quite complicated to her.

Rhonda decided the best strategy would be to just lower her carbohydrate intake. By doing so, she has to consume more protein and fat than normal. She radically changed her diet to eliminate potatoes, cereals, pastas, breads, and muffins from her diet. As she began to lose weight, she decided to exclude some fruits and vegetables that contain carbohydrate. In two weeks she lost about 10 pounds. She also joined a gym to work out.

Rhonda, however, has begun to experience unwanted side effects. She is feeling really tired, has trouble concentrating, is constipated, and her workouts have become more difficult. She feels as if she has no endurance. One of her best friends has commented that her breath smells odd. Rhonda is frustrated and confused. She decides to seek the advice of a friend who is taking a course in nutrition for health sciences. What advice would you give Rhonda? Be thorough in your answer.

9. Discuss the root cause differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

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